Simple electric motor – science projects

The electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. There are mainly three types of electric motor.
  • DCMotor.
  • Induction Motor.
  • Synchronous Motor.
All of these motors work in more or less same principle. Working of electric motor mainly depends upon the interaction of magnetic field with current.
  • In a basic DC motor, an armature is placed in between magnetic poles. If the armature winding is supplied by an external DC source, current starts flowing through the armature conductors. As the conductors are carrying current inside a magnetic field, they will experience a force which tends to rotate the armature.A DC motor is also a generator at the same time and the voltage it would produce under rotation when it’s disconnected from the supply is the back emf, also called counter emf because it’s in opposite polarity to the supply voltage and tends to cause outward current flow
  • In single phase induction motor, when a single phase supply is given to the stator winding, a pulsating magnetic field is produced and in a three phase induction motor, when three phase supply is given to three phase stator winding, a rotating magnetic field is produced.
  • In synchronous motor, when balanced three phase supply is given to the stationary three phase stator winding, a rotating magnetic field is produced which rotates at synchronous speed.

Objective : to build a simple electric motor powered with solar panels – low voltage

Category : solar energy projects

Input: DC voltage

Torque is going to equal the amperage input to the coil per times pulsed.
pulse motor

simple electric motor : pulse motor


A pulsed motor uses short pulses of current to drive the motor, making it spin. The part of the motor that spins is called the rotor. Acting as a flywheel, and has multiple permanent magnets. These magnets are usually extremely strong (neodymium magnets) and can be arranged in a variety of different configurations.
The stator is the stationary part of the motor that surrounds the rotor. It holds one or more electrical coils. They are positioned so that the magnets line up with the coils/coil, during part of the rotation.
The coils are energized when they are exactly lined up with the permanent magnets in the rotor.
When electrical coils are energized with a short pulse of current, they produce a repulsive force.
How it works ?
The pulse motor is one of the simplest motors and works very well under low voltages.
 When magnet  gets close to the reed switch, the two contacts inside the glass tube get magnetized and touch each other.
 The coil iron – less pushes magnet away with the rotor. When the rotor spins away, the reed switch demagnetizes and the contacts move back to their original position (the coil is disabled). The rotor continues to spin due to inertia until the next magnet gets in working range of the reed switch. It becomes magnetized again and its contacts connect together (refering to reed switch).


How to make a simple electric motor (DC motor) – materials and operations

Pulse motor powered with small solar panels

 A. Materials used to make the simple electric motor :
1. coil iron – less (bobbin)
how to make a simple electric motor

coil iron less (bobbin)

2. flywheel of the simple electric motor : fidget spinner with iron insertions + 3 neodymium magnet discs
magnets are disposed N-N-N

fidget spinner

neodymium magnet discs

neodymium discs

3. reed switch

reed switch

4. two small solar panels
solar panel

mini solar panel



simple electric motor powered with solar panels

Pulse motor circuit

B. Operations :
  • fix the neodymium disc magnets on the fidget spinner N-N-N
  • fix the reed switch on the coil iron – less in the mentioned position.  (photo : ” simple electric motor : pulse motor )
  • connect the solar panels through wires to the coil iron-less – reed switch.
  • place the flywheel ( fidget spinner with iron insertions + 3 neodymium magnet discs disposed N-N-N) under the coil
  • place the solar panels in a lighted area inside the house or outside.


you can visit also Pulse motor generator (PMG) page science projects

science projects : simple electric motor ( pulse motor) without batteries

high speed electric motor

a sciencetoolbar project

email :

fidget spinner
coil iron - less
reed switch